US: WAVE Tolling - Local Unicast Wireless (1609.2)


This solution is used within the U.S.. It combines standards associated with US: WAVE Tolling with those for V–X: Local Unicast Wireless (1609.2). The US: WAVE Tolling standards include upper–layer standards required to implement V2I tolling flows. The V–X: Local Unicast Wireless (1609.2) standards include lower–layer standards that support local–area unicast wireless solutions applicable to North America, such as WAVE DSRC, LTE–V2X, LTE, Wi–Fi, etc.

Includes Standards

MgmtAddressed ElsewhereAddressed Elsewhere in StackThe services related to this portion of the stack are defined in the other standards listed for this solution.
ITS Application EntityISO 14906Electronic fee collection –– Application interface definition for dedicated short–range communicationISO 14906 specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems using the dedicated short–range communication (DSRC).
FacilitiesIEEE 1609.11IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)–– Over–the–Air Electronic Payment Data Exchange Protocol for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)This standard defines a basic level of technical interoperability for an over–the–air electronic payment (e.g., tolling) protocol for the vehicle–to–roadside link for electronic payment equipment. It does not provide a full solution for interoperability, and it does not define other parts of the electronic payment system, other services, other technologies and non–technical elements of payment interoperability.
FacilitiesISO 15628Intelligent transport systems –– Dedicated short range communication (DSRC) –– DSRC application layerISO 15628 specifies the upper layers originally developed for EU 5.8 GHz backscatter communications, and US DSRC. Likely not very relevant for C–ITS. Application identifier is continued now as part of EN ISO 17419 ITS–AID.
TransNetIEEE 1609.3IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) – Networking ServicesThis standard defines the network and transport layer options for the WAVE environment. The standard defines three options: a bandwidth efficient single–hop solution known as WSMP, UDP/IP, and TCP/IP. It has been harmonized with ISO FNTP and FSAP – a common message format specified in ISO 16460.

Readiness: Moderate–Low

Readiness Description

Multiple significant and minor issues.  For existing deployments, the chosen solution is likely deficient in security or management capabilities, and the issues should be reviewed and upgrades developed as needed. Some solutions in this category may also be becoming obsolete from an interoperability perspective and if this is the case, then upgrades should be planned as soon as possible. For new deployments, the solution may be viable for pilots when applied to the triples it supports; such pilot deployments should consider a path to addressing these issues as a part of their design activities. The solution does not provide sufficient interoperability, management, and security to enable proper, full–scale deployment without  additional work.


IssueSeverityDescriptionAssociated StandardAssociated Triple
Out of date (high)HighThe standard includes normative references to other standards that have been subject to significant changes that can impact interoperability of systems and the industry has not specified if and how these updates should be implemented for deployments of this standard.IEEE 1609.11 WAVE – Elec Payment(All)
Data may not be fully defined (low)LowThe information flow is unclear as to what precisely is needed; the standard may not fully support the needs of the information flow, depending on how it is interpreted.(None)(All)
Data not defined in standard formatLowThe definition of data concepts should conform to ISO 14817–1 to promote reuse among ITS.IEEE 1609.11 WAVE – Elec Payment(All)

Supports Interfaces

Cincinnati Parking ManagementPrivate Vehiclesvehicle payment update
Connected/Automated VehiclesParking Management Systems and Sensors (Private)vehicle payment information
CVG Airport Parking Management SystemsPrivate Vehiclesvehicle payment update
ODOT / KYTC Electronic Toll SystemConnected/Automated Vehiclesvehicle payment update
ODOT / KYTC Electronic Toll SystemPrivate Vehiclesvehicle payment update
Parking Management Systems and Sensors (Private)Connected/Automated Vehiclesvehicle payment update
Parking Management Systems and Sensors (Private)Private Vehiclesvehicle payment update
Private VehiclesCVG Airport Parking Management Systemsvehicle payment information
Private VehiclesParking Management Systems and Sensors (Private)vehicle payment information
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